Direct Action Plan: The most critical phase Jinnah and the Muslim press
Youth's role in the creation of Pakistan
Achievement of Pakistan: An unparalleled sacrifice in any nation's history
Freedom struggle in NWFP
A historical perspective
Pakistan was inevitable
Economic roots of partition    


Independence Day of Pakistan
Direct Action Plan: The most critical phase

By Professor Sharif al Mujahid

"We want peace. But if war is forced upon us, we accept it." With this telling couplet from the immoral Firdausi did the Quaid close his memorable speech to the Muslim League Council meeting in Bombay on July 29,1946. And, to be sure, this couplet represented the bitter Muslim mood at the British acquiescence at the Congress's distortion of the Cabinet Mission plan (1946).
Muslim bitterness at Congress "duplicity" and British "perfidy" led to revoke of their earlier decision to accept the Plan, revert to their original demand and reaffirm their faith in a sovereign, independent Pakistan. Earlier that evening, the League Council had taken a bold decision: it said good-bye to constitutionalism and sanctioned Direct Action for the first time in all its annals, and this to wrest Pakistan. "...Now the time has come" so ran the League resolution, "for the Muslim nation to resort to Direct Action, to achieve Pakistan, to assert their just rights, to vindicate their honour and get rid of the British slavery and contemplated future caste-Hindu domination."
The resolution had also called on its members to return British titles, which it characterised as "tinsels of slavery". The response was immediate: member after member went up the rostrum to renounce his title and affirm his preference for a plain Mr instead. And from now, more than over, it was "Pakistan or perish".
Except for the monumental decision to adopt Pakistan as the league's supreme goal on March 23-24, 1940, nothing so momentous had the League embarked upon in its long chequered history. Nor anything so revolutionary had it launched upon. No wonder, the call to Direct Action stirred Muslim India to its depths: it started Fire Prairie-like. Even so inveterate a critic of Jinnah and the League as the Blitz (Bombay) was constrained to concede: "The worst enemies of the Muslim League cannot help envying the leadership of Mr Jinnah. Last week's cataclysmic transformation of the League from the reactionary racket of the Muslim Nawabs, Noons, and Knights into a revolutionary mass organisation dedicated, by word if not be deed, to an anti-Imperialist struggle, compels us to express the sneaking national wish that a diplomat and strategist of Jinnah's proven calibre were at the held of the Indian National Congress. There is no denying the fact that by his latest master-stroke of diplomacy Jinnah has outbid, outwitted and outmaneuvered the British and Congress alike and confounded the common national indictment that the Muslim League is a parasite of British Imperialism."
Not unexpectedly, the Direct Action decision sent a wave of fear and indignation in the Congress circles. In a strongly-worded speech, Sardar Patel, "the iron man" of the Congress, whipped up his Hindu audience to frenzy and violence, saying that the League's contemplated Direct Action was in fact directed towards the Congress and the Hindus since they would be heading the Interim Government in a short while. Nehru, on his part declared more sophistically that "if the government is strong the Direct Action will go under, and if the government is weak will go under". In his own inimitable manner, Gandhi prognosticated. "We are not yet in the midst of a civil war. But we are near it, at present we are playing at it."
These pronouncements explain why and how the Direct Action Day in Calcutta on August 16 was turned into a day of orgy, violence and bloodshed. In fixing August 16, 1946 as the Direct Action Day, the League's object was not to start a direct action movement on that day but to explain to the people the implications of the League Council's Bombay resolution. This was emphasised repeatedly in the pre-Direct Action Day pronouncements of the League leaders, including that of Jinnah. Also emphasised was the non-violent and entirely peaceful nature of the Direct Action. It was also made clear that, when finally launched, Direct Action would not be directed against anyone in particular, and definitely not against the Hindus, but would be specifically meant to create among Muslims the requisite confidence, to enable them to wrest Pakistan, given the tremendous odds against them and its creation.
As of then, Bengal along had a stable League Ministry, the other one in the Sindh being shaky and a victim of intrigues, from both within and without. This Bengal ministry was, of course, an eyesore to the Congress, which understandably was bent upon discrediting it, leading to its dismissed, if possible. And so Calutta, where Muslims constituted barely 23 per cent of the population, was chosen as the venue to teach Muslims and the League a bitter lesion and to bury the League's contemplated Direct Action in an avalanche of violence and bloodshed. In the result: while the day passed off peacefully in the rest of the Sub-continent, even in other more predominantly Muslim majority provinces, it sparked the beginning of a civil war between Hindus and the Muslims - the long-awaited civil war, so confidently predicted by Sardar Patel when the Muslims had discomfited the Congress attempts to drown the League at the Central Assembly polls, in January 1946. In the Calcutta carnage about five thousand people lost their lives and greater number were injured, the loss of property was immense and frightful. Never before had any communal riot caused such a heavy toll. Seen afterward, the Congress set itself in motion, blamed the League ministry all the way, and tabled no confidence motion, to get it discredited. The League, on the other hand, characterised the holocaust as an organised and premeditated Hindu attempt to get the League ministry discredited and make a shambles of the Direct Action programme.
Summing up the Muslim mood, in his Eid message on August 28,1946, Jinnah said: "Today, the horizon is dark for us... we are vilified, misrepresented and threatened from every direction. Muslim league is ignored and by-passed, tremendous false propaganda is carried on to throw the blame on Muslim League for which there is no iota of justification; the Viceroy and the British government have surrendered to the Congress and it only remains for them now to make a declaration that they have abdicated and are about to hand over to the Fascist caste Hindu Congress, the government of the Sub-continent".
"... This has created a very great and dangerous situation for us and we must face it as a united nation also go through the test and fire of being surpassed, oppressed and persecuted. However, I am confident that if the hundred million Muslims stand united all the manoeuvres and machinations and designs of our opponents will fail miserably and we shall emerge out of this struggle triumphantly..."
"We have argued; we have reasoned; we have supplicated; and we have made great concessions but all to no purpose. There remains in front of us a struggle and we must face it boldly and courageously in a disciplined and organised manner..."
And at that bleak juncture, the Muslims direly stood in need of such words of courage. The Calcutta holocaust was followed by riots in Bombay and Ahmedabad, which presently spread to several cities, towns and villages like UP, CP, Bihar and Madras. Of prime significance was the fact that the earliest outbreaks were all in predominantly Hindu areas.
In mid-October, however, when the news of the death of a large number of Muslim boatmen from Noakhali in the Calcutta carnage reached their folks at home. There was a sudden flare-up in Noakhali in which, according to the Governor of Bengal, the GOC, and the District Magistrate of Noakhali, less than 200 persons were killed and "cases of rape, abduction and forcible marriage were rare". But these incidents came in handy to lay the blame for the now spreading civil war at the League's door and to demand, on that basis, its exit from the Interim Government, which the League had joined on October 25, at the Viceroy's persuasion, in order to control the increasingly deteriorating situation. The Hindu leaders, including Gandhi and Kripalani, issued statement after statement, grossly exaggerating the casualties; the Congress press frantically engaged itself in spreading tendentious and tell-tale stories, even after neutral sources had nailed them to the counter.
As a result of this campaign of hatred, and further instigation by "well-know Congress leaders and members of the legislature" in neighbouring Bihar, Hindus of the five districts of Saran, Patna, Gaya, Monghyr, and Bhagalpur rose en masse against the Muslims, slaughtering some 30,000 Muslims (including women and children), and clearing about 300 square miles of territory of all Muslims. More shocking, while all this was going on, the Congress ministry in Bihar did not even call in the Army for one full week. Alibis were presented to cover up the foul crimes against the Muslims, and the connivance of the Congress Government.
And in a subtle attempt to divert attention, Gandhi who had earlier gone to Noakhali, stayed put over there and tried to focus attention on the "plight" of the Hindu minority in Eastern Bengal. Neither he nor any other Congress leader had any tear shed on the plight of the Bihar Muslims. Nor would the Congress ministry agree to hold an impartial inquiry, while the League government in Bengal had readily agreed to appoint one under Chief Justice Sir Patrick Spend of the Federal Court.
About a week later occurred the three-day holocaust in Garhmukhteswar, in the Meerut District, about 55 miles from Delhi. About 2,000 Muslims were killed and property worth lacs of rupees was either destroyed or looted. Not a shot was fired by the police; the Army was called, but after three days.
Of utmost significance in fathering the causes and extent of the then raging civil war was a revealing pronouncement by Sardar Patel "the Iron Man" of the Congress. In his address to the Meerut Congress session in the late November, he made an oblique reference to the number of Hindus and Muslims killed in Bengal, Bihar and the UP, and called on the Muslims to "examine the balance-sheet", and to reflect. And he capped his call by an ultimatum: "The sword will be met with sword". Meantime, the initial fissures in the improvised edifice of the Interim Government developed into visible cracks, portending a virtual breakdown. The Congress forced the Viceroy to call the first session of the Constituent Assembly on December 9, 1946. The League, however, refused to withdraw its Bombay Resolution, arguing that the Congress reservations about certain vital causes in the Cabinet Mission Plan had made no sense of the plan. A hastily improvised conference between the Congress, League and the Sikhs under the aegis of His Majesty's Government in December 1946 failed to savage the situation either, although HMG's Statement of December 6, upheld the League's stand vis-a-vis the grouping principle. The Statement also laid down that "should a constitution come to be framed by the Constituent Assembly in which a large section of the Indian population have not been represented, His Majesty's Government could not, of course, contemplate forcing such a constitution upon any unwilling part of the country". One result of the post-Direct Action Muslim resurgence was that whenever and wherever their rights were trampled upon, the Muslim refused to take it lying down. This was most amply demonstrated in the Punjab, the Frontier and in Assam.
In January, Muslim Punjab, now resurgent and indignant at being denied its right to administer the province, came into clash with the reactionary Tiwana government. The Tiwana-Glancy-Sachar axis had denied the people even civil liberties. In January 1947, it went further, and banned the Punjab Muslim National Guards and ordered a search of its headquarters. This touched off a province-wide movement for the restoration of civil liberties. Although provoked on numerous occasions, the Muslims refused to turn it into a communal or violent movement.
The Khan of Mamdot, Mian Iftikharuddin, Malik Feroz Khan Noon, Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan, Mian Muhammad Mumtaz Daulatna and others courted arrest.
Thousands upon thousands of Muslim men and women defied the government 's order on processions and meetings. For the first time in the annals of Muslims movements, women came out into the open and branched all odds; it was a teenage girl that climbed and hoisted the League flag atop the Secretariat Building. A rebel paper was printed and circulated.
The jails were filled to capacity soon enough, and the government was forced to release those arrested for want of accommodation. After such measure of popular indignation and resistance, the discredited ministry could not possible survive for long: it collapsed finally in early March when Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana had to tender this resignation.
Dr Khan Sahib, the Congress Chief Minister in the NWFP, had adopted similar tactics to suppress the Muslims and the Muslim League in the Frontier and to keep himself in power. To all who could see, it was evident even as early as October 1946 when Nehru went on a tour in the Frontier that the Khan brother's popularity had hoisted tremendously. Maulana Azad reports that when Nehru arrived in Peshawar, the airport was swarming with a large number of police, which had been placed there to give protection to the unpopular Chief Minster and defend him and his guests against the hostility of the Patahans.
By February 1947, a stage was reached when the Pathans' bitterness against Dr Khan Sahib spilled over into a movement of civil liberties. All the prominent Leaguers, including Khan Abdul Qaiyyum Khan, Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif and Pir Sahib of Zakori, were hauled into god. By the end of March over six thousand people had been arrested; by the first week of April the number rose to twenty thousand. A clandestine radio station in the tribal belt went on the air. Betimes, their fury and indignation reached new heights. In spite of the tremendous odds, the movement continued for four long months and was called off only after the announcement of the June 3rd Plan.
In the wake of the Punjab and Frontier came the civil disobedience movement in Assam. The Bardoloi ministry had imposed a sort of Ghetto Act against Muslim Bengali immigrants, who had settled there for some three decades. The Muslim cultivators of the neighbouring districts of Bengal had been encouraged in the 1920s to migrate to Assam, and cultivate the land, transforming the fearful jungles into smiling cornfields. By mid the 1940s however, the communal feeling of Bardoloi and his henchmen work up. It saw in the settlement of these Bengali immigrants the establishment of Pakistan in their paternal, homeland. Their "remedy" was the Line System the lawless law, which had never been passed by any legislature, and they resorted to eviction, setting elephants to pull down and raze huts to the ground.
This inhuman law sparked the Assam Muslims to launch a civil disobedience movement under the energetic leadership of Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani. He courted arrest, followed by others. This movement also continued with varying fortunes till the announcement of Partition Plan of 3rd June.
Thus, the Direct Action resolution had sparked revolutionary activity among Muslims. It prepared the ground for the disobedience movements in three provinces, and these in part convinced the British that Muslims would not bargain for anything less than Pakistan. In perspective, then, the Direct Action decision influenced, more than anything else, the course of Indian politics during the final stage of British rule, and led directly to the emergence of Pakistan within a year.




Jinnah and the Muslim press
By Aqeel-uz-zafar Khan

The Press in India had played a pivotal role in the emancipation of the Sub-continent from the foreign yoke. It became the most effective instrument utilised for publicity by the authorities as well as by the private agencies to achieve their objectives. It played a vital role for the politicians to project and propagate their views, the newspapers courageously taught and trained thousands of young men to realise their responsibilities and participate in the struggle for independence.
With every day break, the newspapers delivered a message reminding the educated Indians about their national obligations, motivating them to endeavour individually and collectively for the liberation of their country. The print media created an understanding, awakening and co-operation among the different sections of society, united the people on a single platform to struggle for the achievement of common cause.
It goes without saying that the writers, editors and proprietors of newspapers made immense sacrifices for the sacred cause of independence. They developed the spirit of agitation against the British rule stirred the Sub-continent to rise against the imperialism and its colonialism. The Muslim press participated in the freedom movement more energetically than the Hindu press. The Muslim newspapers vocalised the national and religious sentiments, which continued to clash with the British government. Consequently, the Muslim press often faced seditious charges leading to the prosecution of the press and editors.
The Al-Helal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Comrade and Hamdard edited by Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and the Zamindar, printed and published by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan etc played a conspicuous role in stimulating the political sentiments. They were fined and punished for their so called seditious writings.
Like his great contemporaries Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a staunch supporter of freedom of press. It is interesting to note that his political career began with the press legislation. Soon after his election as member of the Imperial Legislative Council in 1910, he was confronted with the Press Act, tabled by the Law Member of the government in the very first session of the Council. He criticised the provisions of the Act, however, it was passed in the Council with majority votes. Commenting after words in his speech, he observed that:
"The Press Act was most unwelcome measure from its very inception. It has been characterised as a serious menace to the freedom of press in India, but the harsh manner in which it is enforced has roused the strongest opposition and created great discontent."
The year 1937 was a turning point in the history of Indian politics. Elections were held in British India and Congress ministries were formed in seven provinces. Intoxicated by power the Congress adopted antagonistic attitude towards the Muslims, and rejected the proposal of co-operation and coalition offered by MA Jinnah. The Hindus press started misleading propaganda against the Muslim League and its leader projecting him a communal statesman, his statements were distorted, and news of his activities were either ignored or given little space. Under the circumstances the need of a first class Muslim organ was badly felt. The existing Muslim press was insufficient to counteract the Congress propaganda. Realising the pressing problem, Jinnah issued a appeal for funds on June 7, 1937, stating that: " It is also necessary to have an Independent Press for giving advanced political views to Musalmans by publishing a weekly or daily paper both in English and Urdu, in order to counteract false and malicious propaganda which is carried on in different places by the prejudicial and interested parties in India."
In 1938, Urdu weekly 'Manshoor' edited by Syed Hasan Riaz appeared from Delhi as an organ of All India Muslim League. The Manshoor published reports about League's activities and current political affairs. Its circulation was limited to the Urdu readers however, it proved to be a successful venture for the AIML.
In 1939, Muslim League established a Propaganda and Press Fund and Jinnah appealed to the Muslims to " contribute generously to the Press Propaganda Fund". To collect funds he toured Ahmadabad, Bantva, Dhoraji, Kathiawar and other rich Muslim principalities of Gujrat. He was showered with the money by the Muslims and during his tour collected Rs 1,50,000. The highest contribution was made by Sir Adamji Dawood who denoted Rs 20,000 for the Press Fund.
In 1941, the weekly Dawn was appeared from Dehli as an organ of the Muslim League. At this occasion, Jinnah appealed to the Muslims on October 26, 1941, stating that:
"I am glad that at last an English weekly, the Dawn, is founded and established in Dehli, the capital city of India, which is at present the nerve centre of all political activities. Describing the objects of the weekly, he informed:
"The Dawn will mirror faithfully the views of Muslim India and the All India Muslim League in all its activities: economic, educational and social and more particularly political, throughout the country fearlessly and independently and while its policy will be, no doubt mainly to advocate and champion the cause of the Musalmans and the policy and programme of the All India Muslim League, it will not neglect the cause and welfare of the peoples of this Sub-continent generally".
Dawn and Manshoor contributed a great deal in the propagation of the policy of the AIML and projecting the pronouncements of MA Jinnah. Within a short time their circulation was increased and the League's official version about the political issues was communicated to the members of AIML and Muslim readers all over India regularly. Dawn was converted into a daily newspaper in October 1942, while the Manshoor was published as a daily from December 35, 1944, the birthday of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. In his massage about Manshoor, Jinnah appreciated its contribution as:
"The services which it has rendered as a weekly to the Musalmans and particularly the Muslim League during the past few years of its existence are considerable and I hope that it will continue its task of serving the Muslim public and advocating their national cause with redoubled vigour. I need not to emphasise the desirability of every Muslim doing his bit in strengthening the Muslim Press".
Jinnah entrusted the management of Dawn and Manshoor to Liaquat Ali Khan and appointed him the Director. In his letter to Liaquat Ali Khan, dated August 2, 1944, he clarified his position as follows:
"I wish therefore that you will inform all concerned that the sole proprietor of Dawn and Manshoor is myself, entirely owning the name, goodwill, properties, assets and other effects of these two papers and that your position therefore was benami in that you conducted business for me and on my behalf signing as 'proprietor'. As such only I am entitled to all profits accruing to the business of these papers and responsible for its liabilities".
Besides the Leagues' organs, Dawn and Manshoor Jinnah extended his support to the Muslim press whole-heartedly. When a newspaper or a periodical asked for his massage, he readily responded to it desiring its support to the cause of Muslim India. The Star of India, owned by the Isphani Family and published from Calcutta was a great admirer of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and propagated his views in the Eastern India. Jinnah was much impressed by the style and expression of the newspaper. In his massage to the editor dated November 13, 1938, he praised the paper stating that:
"Your paper has rendered the greatest service to the All India Muslim League not only in the Bengal but in other Provinces for which I publicly thank you. In my opinion every educated Musalman who has the welfare of his community at heart should subscribe to your paper as it only gives the Muslim news of various provinces but in some of your leaders you have advocated and championed the cause of the Musalmans and upheld the policy and programme of the League in a masterly manner".
Another newspaper the "Morning News", appeared from Calcutta in 1943, also supported and publicised the policy and programme of AIML. The paper, in its write-ups, news and editorials explained and expounded the ideology of Pakistan, which was owned by Khwaja Nooruddin, a member of Nawab of Dacca family, the Morning News survived till 1953 at Dacca.
Besides, the English newspapers and periodicals, the Urdu press contributed most significantly in spreading and consolidating the ideology of Pakistan in the heart of Muslims. It was the Urdu press, which counteracted Congress propaganda at every stage during the struggle for Pakistan. The Muslim press inculcated a burning zeal among the Muslims to fight for the achievement of the ideological state of Pakistan.
Anjam and Jang from Delhi, Zamindar, Nawa-e-Waqat, Inqilab and Ehsan from Lahore, Asar-e-Jadeed from Calcutta and numerous other newspapers participated in enhancing the spirit of Muslim nationalism. The vernacular press also contributed its share in the struggle for independence.
Besides the individual newspapers the AIML established the Department of Publicity and Information under Qazi Muhammad Isa to collaborate with the Muslim authors to contribute books, pamphlets and leaflets about the Pakistan movement. The department produced substantial literature during the election campaign of 1945-1946.
At the threshold of independence, Jinnah addressed the Bombay Provincial Muslim Journalist Association on March 12, 1947. In his speech he pronounced his views about the responsibilities of press concisely. Referring to the profession of journalism, he said:
"You have great power. You can guide and misguide people. You can make or mar the biggest personality. The power of the press is really great, but you must remember that this power, which you are wielding, is a trust. Look upon it as a great trust and remember that you are guiding honestly and sincerely the progress and welfare of your nation. At the same time I expect you to be completely fearless." Jinnah said that he welcomed criticism. "If I go wrong, or for that matter, the League goes wrong in any direction of its policy or programme, I want you to criticise it honestly as its friend, in fact, as one whose heart is beating with the Muslim nation."
(The author is ex-Senior
Research Fellow, Quaid-i-Azam Academy, Karachi.)




Youth's role in the creation of Pakistan
By Rashid Ali Siddiqui


Young generation always plays the leading role to manipulate the situation whenever a movement is launched or a revolution is in offing in any part of the world. Such fantastic job has also been done by our youth during the freedom movement. The creation of Pakistan was not an outcome of a sudden move or reaction of Muslims of South Asia but the country was a fruit of long, hard and unprecedented struggle, spanning over centuries involving many great leaders.
Today our youths are victim of sheer frustration in the backdrop of growing unemployment, expensive education, reluctance of their elders to give them proper guidance and massive corruption in giving jobs and promotions. The old generation can be held responsible this fiasco. The youth, confronting with such problems have no other option but to tread the thorny path, compelling them to take law in their hands and use illegal means to get a morsel. It is irony of the fate that you cannot get your due right without greasing the palms of high-ups, who have been made the masters of our youth's destiny. Our young generation seems to be disgruntled, dejected and disappointed with the situation. After 9/11 catastrophic incidents, the Western countries and US have shut the door of employment on them. A large number of highly qualified and educated boys have been forced to wander on streets and roads to seek proper job or commit suicide that is why the ratio of lawlessness and suicide is on rise. Many foreign countries labeling them as part of terrorist network pushed them back to Pakistan. Our youths, who had been termed as 'the architects of Pakistan' by the Quaid-i-Azam many times, stand at the crossroad of history. A path goes towards destruction and other way demands them to reminisce the teachings of Quaid regarding the young generation.
The Aligarh Movement, spearheaded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan for the Muslim youth, had undoubtedly laid the foundation of a separate Muslim state for the Muslims of India. The Aligarh Movement had not only reminded the Muslims that their religion, culture and customs were different from that of Hindus. It gave them a separate identity and motivated them to learn the modern sciences to bring their educational standard at the par with Hindus as Sir Syed had strongly believed that the Muslims in India could not prosper and develop unless they acquired the knowledge of modern sciences and learn English. His dream to make the Muslims economically and socially strong was materialised with the flourishing of Aligarh Movement and his founded institution was transformed into a well-known Muslim University to champion the cause of Pakistan Movement.
The historic Aligarh Movement handed over the mantle of noble cause to Ali Brothers - the highly respected Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali. The life of two brothers is a beacon light for the present day generation. When the British arrested and put them behind the bar, the two brothers refused to offer forgiveness, a condition for their release. This shows that how our youth were steadfast and devoted to their cause. Their courage, dedication and the spirit of sacrifice made them role-model for the nation and specially for our youngsters.
Another young man Chaudhri Rahmat Ali contributed a major role in the Pakistan Movement when he coined the word 'Pakistan' after taking the initial letters from the Muslim dominated areas, which formed state of Pakistan.
Allama Iqbal, the thinker of Pakistan, also could not help praising the role of youth in turning the tides:

mohabat mujhe unn
jawanon sey hai; sitaron pey jo daltey hain kamand

The Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah has also acknowledged the role, played by students and young generation in the Pakistan Movement, many times after Pakistan came into being on August 14, 1947. He had always admired the students and felt gratitude for them for working side-by-side with men. Realising their effectiveness for the success of Pakistan's struggle Muslim Student Federation (MSF), the students' wing of the All-India Muslim League, was founded. The Muslim students would go far and wide on mass contact campaign and acquainted the uneducated people with the latest development regarding their noble struggle. Their hectic efforts bore fruit and the Muslims of India awoke from deep slumber. Now their all efforts had been directed towards the achievement of Pakistan.
After the creation of Pakistan, Quaid once again recalled the role of students in the Pakistan Movement while addressing to the students of the Islamia College at Peshawar on April 12, 1948. His historical address sets the guidelines for our students and youth.
He says, "I am indeed very happy to be present here today and to have the privilege of meeting and addressing the students of this great Dar-ul-Ulum, who are the future builders of Pakistan". "On this occasion the thought that is naturally uppermost in my mind is the support and help that the movement for the achievement of Pakistan received from the student community, particularly of this Province.
I cannot help feeling that the unequivocal and unmistakable decision of the people of this Province to join Pakistan, which was given through the referendum held last year, was helped considerably by the contribution made by the students. I take particular pride in the fact that the people of this Province have never and in no way lagged behind in the struggle for freedom and achievement of Pakistan".
A year after the creation of Pakistan, the Quaid, overwhelmed with joy told the youths that they had achieved their national goal. Reposing full faith on them, he remarks: You will expect me to give you a bit of advice regarding the manner in which we can put our shoulders behind the most difficult and important task of building up our new State into what we all wish it to be; namely one of the greatest States in the world. The father of nation sets the principles for them:
1. The first thing they should do is to learn to appreciate the difference in the approach to the problems with which Pakistan is faced now, in contrast with those which were facing them when they were struggling for the independence.
2. During Pakistan's struggle the youth were critical of the Government which was a foreign Government and which the Muslims wanted to replace by a Government of their own. In doing so the Muslim youth had to sacrifice many things including their academic careers.
3. Reminding his three words of success, 'unity, faith and discipline', he advised them to develop a sound sense of discipline, character, initiative and a solid academic background. "You must devote yourself whole-heartedly to your studies, for that is your first obligation to yourselves, your parents and to the State. You must learn to obey for only then you can learn to command. In your criticism of the Government you must learn to be constructive. Government welcomes constructive criticism. You can make a big contribution towards bringing about harmony and unity where for personal and other selfish considerations some people may adopt courses, which are likely to lead to disruption and disunity."
4. They had been warned not to allow their actions to be guided by ill-digested information or slogans and catch-words. "There is a common fault with the students against which I must warn you. The students believe that no one can tell them anything, which they do not already know. That mentality is harmful and often leads to quite a lot of mischief. But if you want to learn by your own experience, and not by the experience of your elders, let me tell you that as you become older, you will be more ready to learn from your costly experiences and the knock that you shall have received during your lifetime, which will harm you more than anybody else," he advises.
On several occasions, he advised the young generation that their duty to the State often demanded that they must be ready to submerge their individual or provincial interests into the common cause for common good. "Our duty to the State comes first; our duty to our province, to our district, to our town and to our village and ourselves comes next. Remember we are building up a State, which is going to play its full part in the destinies of the whole Islamic World. We therefore, need a wider outlook, an outlook, which transcends the boundaries of provinces, limited nationalism, and racialism. We must develop a sense of patriotism, which should galvanise and weld us all into one united and strong nation. That is the only way in which we can achieve our goal, the goal of our struggle, the goal for which millions of Mussalmans have lost their all and laid down their lives."
Despite the passage of 56 years, his speech is still effective, thought-provoking and provides the solutions of some of the problems, facing your young generation today.




Achievement of Pakistan: An unparalleled sacrifice in any nation's history
By Mahmudul Aziz

In the history of nations, born through struggle and sacrifice, Pakistan is unique because it was achieved through an unparalleled sacrifice of human and material resources while undergoing immense pressures including the migration of over eleven million Muslims forced from India into Pakistan by the worst communal riots that history has ever witnessed, all at the hands of Hindu zealots who never did and never will reconcile to Pakistan. We must remember here that the British, the colonial powers who were ruling the Sub-continent and the Hindus, who formed the majority community in the Sub-continent at the time of partition in 1947, did not accept the call for Pakistan overnight.
It was on June 3, 1947 that the partition plan of the Sub-continent as preferred by the British was accepted by the Muslims and the Hindus and under that plan power was to be transferred by August 15, 1947 to two successor states by the British i e, Pakistan and India.
The acceptance of the Muslim demand for a homeland of their own in the sub-continent by both the British and the Hindus was the result of a successful struggle launched by the Muslim national under the leadership of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who as President of the Muslim League had crowned it with overwhelming success in the general elections of 1946 held by the British in the Sub-continent under the 1935 Act. It is conceded by one and all that had the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah not taken upon himself the leadership of the Muslim League in 1936 and organised it to become the sole spokesman of the Muslim nation in the Sub-continent, the Pakistan demand would have never seen the light of day. And in his heroic struggle for Pakistan Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was fortunate in having the support and unflinching backing of the Poet of the East, the great Muslim thinker and philosopher Dr Allama Mohammad Iqbal. Though Allama Iqbal had died in 1938, two years before the Pakistan Resolution was adopted at the historic 1940 annual session of the Muslim League in Lahore, he had aroused the feelings of separate nationhood among the Muslims in the Sub-continent while also urging the Muslim to follow Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, whom he acknowledged his leader too.
While the Muslim Nation came up with the demand for a separate homeland in the continent through the Pakistan resolution of 1940, the trials and tribulations that the Muslim nation faced in achieving its goal of Pakistan were of a size and quantum that boggles the ordinary human mind. Muslims in the Sub-continent would have lived together with the Hindu majority had they shown reasonableness and accommodation while recognising the separate entity of Muslims in the Sub-continent. But the Congress party sought the assimilation of the Muslims within the Hindu-dominated Congress and till the closing days of the transfer of power by the British sought to deny the Muslims their due, specially in the states in British India where the Muslims were in a minority. It was this attitude of the Hindu majority and the Congress party that contributed to the total realisation by the Muslims in the Sub-continent that they must have a state of their own, even if it comprises the majority Muslim states, so that the forcible assimilation of Muslims by the political, social and cultural forces of the Hindu majority in the Sub-continent are defeated. This threat to Muslim existence as a separate nation within undivided India had become clear in the wake of the forced conversion - Shuddi and anti-Muslim Sangthan campaigns of the Hindu majority community in pre-partition India. Not only that, these Hindu zealots worked out conspiracies against Muslim minorities in the minority provinces in British India and in the occupied state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had a Dogra Hindu ruler but a Muslim majority. Between 1940 to 1947, various records show that in India ruled by the British till August 14, 1947 and in the Indian princely states where the rulers were Hindus, a concerted campaign against the Muslim population was undertaken resulting in rioting and mass migration by Muslim minorities to other places of refuge. Muslims were the target of attacks in Western Bengal, Eastern Punjab, UP, Bombay, Madras, Madhya Pradesh and the Indian state of Gujrat and Bihar in an organised manner by the Hindu extremists. By the close of the year 1946, the riots reported in the district gazetteers and compiled for the whole of British India up to 1946 were more than two thousand, the victims being mostly Muslims. The worst riots to take place were in Bihar from where more than thirty thousand Muslims fled to the state of Hyderabad Deccan, which had the Nizam of Hyderabad as a Muslim ruler and which state welcomed them temporarily to escape from the massacre by Hindu zealots in Bihar.
When the year 1947 began, it became clear that the British shall have to hand over power to two states, not one in the Sub-continent. Pakistan was to comprise the Muslim majority areas in the Eastern and Western wings of the Sub-continent, the Hindu extremists joined hands with other anti-Muslims, zealots to launch a campaign against the Muslims, torching their houses, looting their properties and killing and pillaging whole communities in a manner that as and when Pakistan came into being it faced the burden of the largest number of refugees. Thus these Hindu zealots hoped to burden newly born Pakistan with economic difficulties of an insurmountable nature. Various estimates available in British archives show that more than ten million Muslims in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh Bombay (including Maharashtra), Gujrat and Madras had been affected by the anti-Muslim rioting. These riots found new dimension once the June 3, 1947, Transfer of power plan to the two dominions - Pakistan and Indian union - was announced by the Viceroy of British India and accepted by the Indian National Congress representing the Hindus, the Muslim League representing the Muslims and the Akali Dal representing the Sikhs. By end June 1947, these riots had taken the worst form of loot, pillage, arson and murder in spite of a Boundary military force setup to administer law and order and stop rioting in six districts of Pakistan Punjab and Six districts of Indian Punjab. While on the Pakistan side, the riots were mostly prevented in Indian Union the riots spread in dimension and damage caused to property and human life.
Eleven million Muslims
migrated to Pakistan
In the wake of the partition-transfer-of-power plan, the riots that erupted with greater frenzy in the Indian states, abetted by the ruling Hindu state governments, caused the migration of over seven million Muslims to West Pakistan in the first four months and the figure reached a total of over million by the fourth month of 1948, within the lifetime of the Quaid-i-Azam. The Muslims who were martyred in the riots in Indian Union in the wake of partition numbered over one million while more than two hundred and fifty thousand Muslim women and girls were abducted by the Indian Hindu and Sikh zealots. In the name of religion the worst atrocities were committed and the main victims were the Muslims of the minority provinces in British India. The story, however, does not end there. The Muslims in the different princely states of the British-India, which had Hindu or Sikh rulers were also subjected to the worst rioting by the Hindu majority and forced to migrate to Pakistan. In the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Kapurthala, Patiala, Baroda where the rulers were of Hindu origin while the princely states of Junagadh, Manavadar and Magrol which acceded to Pakistan as also the Muslim State of Hyderabad were over-run by Indian military aggression in the name of 'police action', Muslims were forced to migrate to Pakistan.
Various estimates have placed the loss of property in present day India to the Muslims who were forced to migrate to Pakistan from India by the communal zealots at over Rs 70 billion, a sum that was bigger than the combined budgets of British-India and all the princely states. Conceded that the Muslims in Pakistan, who came by migration, were compensated through the grant of evacuee property left in Pakistan by the migrating Hindu and Sikh community, but the value of this property was not even ten percent of the total value of the property, moveable and immovable left behind by Muslim migrants in India.
I have mentioned the migration figure of eleven million, in the wake of partition, to Pakistan in between August 1947 to June 1948, only to highlight the fact that such colossal migration of a whole population has no parallel in the world history. We have seen the migration from Soviet occupation in the 80s into Pakistan and Iran from Afghanistan running into dome four million. There is the forced migration of Palestinian Arabs at the hands of the Israeli state, there is then the migration of people on a large scale in present day Balkan area when Muslims fled Serbian atrocities. There are some twenty-two cases of mass migration in different African states in the post-Second World War period. But none reaches the figure of eleven million, as was the case with Pakistan in the very first year of its existence.
Why Muslims were
pushed into Pakistan
The reason why eleven million Muslims were pushed into Pakistan by the Hindu zealots in the very first year of Pakistan's independence, six million coming in the first three months from Mid-August to Mid-October 1947, was designed to create on economic burden that Pakistan could not bear and should collapse, or the utter poverty and helplessness of the Muslims forced to come to Pakistan should result in problems of their proper management, provision of food and health aid and shelter. All this would lead to discontent and rioting in Pakistan, just established.
This would lead to an economic collapse and Pakistan would become a failed state, such was the diabolic design of the Hindu zealots in India in the wake of partition. But what they forgot was that the first Muslim State of Madina Munawwarah established by the Holy Prophet of Islam PBUH, was after the migration of the Holy Prophet, PBUH, and several thousand of his disciples to Madina in the face of the near impossible conditions for Muslims in Makkah Al Mukarramah imposed by the opponents of Islam. The migration to Pakistan was in the footsteps of the Holy Prophet of Islam and the open arms with which they were received speaks volumes for the brotherly feeling that Islam generates among its followers and yet the golden principle of full protection to minorities by the Muslims as ordained in Islam is not forgotten. It was this aspect of the Muslim character, which the Hindu zealots failed to gauge or understand. Pakistan underwent the pressure of the biggest migration of people, totaling almost eleven million, without crumbling under the burden, in fact facing that pressure with a will to overcome it and provide livelihood of an honourable nature to each one of the migrant Muslim families. The job was tremendous and painstaking but I have watched it handled with a zeal and devotion that speaks volumes for the hard work put in by officials and others involved in the resettlement and complete assimilation of such a huge number of migrant population. I still recall the Yeoman's service rendered in this regard by late Lt General Azam Khan and by late Syed Hashim Raza, the former Minister of Rehabilitation, latter the Chief Settlement Commissioner of Pakistan in the late 50s and early 60s. Immovable properties taken over by the Government in Pakistan, of those who left for India were distributed among the refugees who came from India, on the basis of their verified claims. A computation of those claims showed that the Muslim migrants who came to Pakistan left behind properties alone that easily accounted for a total sum of over Rs Seventy billion in those days of the 50s when the rupee was valued at 4.60 against the dollar. Thus one can see how perfidious was the Indian attempt at burdening Pakistan with eleven million refugees while carrying out military takeovers in Jammu and Kashmir the states of Manavadar, Mangrol and Junagadh and the Nizam's state of Hyderabad Deccan. It would not be out of place here to mention that the Muslim community in Goa, Diu and Daman was also the sufferer when India took over these Portugese possession by military action and equally did the Muslims suffer in Pondicherry when it was taken over from France by India.
Not only did the refugees assimilate in the Pakistani nation, the common bond being Islam, they also contributed a dynamism and willingness to fight back for their rights to exist as a free independent Muslim state such that the designs of different enemies of Pakistan have been defeated. It is often argued that the bond of Islam was not so all embracing otherwise; the Eastern wing of Pakistan would not have broken away to become Bangladesh. True that the Eastern wing broke away, but what is the position today. Bangladesh is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Countries, maintaining its Islamic ethos, having the most cordial ties with Pakistan and other Islamic countries and has maintained its independent existence as a separate state with overwhelming majority being Muslim. In fact the very existence of Bangladesh as an independent Muslim state upholds the two-Nation theory under which the Quaid declared that in British-India there are two nations living and the Muslim nation of the sub-continent has all the makings and trappings of a nation different from the Hindu majority.
It is the two-nation theory that finds expression also in the Pakistan thrust towards the goal of Islamic solidarity from day one. The recent meeting of the Islamic Summit in October 2003 and the need for reforms in that organisation, fuelled also by Pakistan's insistence for the same, are manifestations of the fact that the Muslims have their own identity in the global village too. We thus see in August 14, 1947 not only the Pakistan Independence Day, marking the culmination of a long drawn struggle for national identification and freedom but also national identification as an Islamic state. It is this bond that binds us to the Muslim nations now numbering fifty-eight. True that these nations have yet to acquire the required economic and military strength to obtain better recognition of the weight of over a billion Muslims collected on the platform of Islamic solidarity, but the fact remains that India has no such platform to find its acceptance as a member.
Secondly, even in present day world conditions and the fight against international terror, Pakistan is a much safer country than most of its neighbours. And in keeping with the guiding principle laid down in the Holy Quran, Pakistan has sought knowledge from China and along with that knowledge, the closest ties with China in a concerted effort that dates back to the days when the World War-II had ended but the conflict in China was going on with Chairman Mao Tse Tung pushing from the long March hideouts in Yunnan province to the capital Beijing. It was in 1946 that Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah declared publicly his support for Chairman Mao Tse Tung and his refusal to accept the Kuomintang. It was in keeping with the policy that India must not be imitated by Pakistan because Jawaharlal Nehru, the Indian Congress Leader was building special ties with Chiang Kai Shek, the Chinese Nationalist leader who caused such colossal loss to the Chinese nation. And again it was Chairman Mao Tse Tung who sent a message of felicitations to Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah as the Governor-General of Pakistan on August 14, 1947, when Pakistan appeared as a patch of green on the canvas of the world. The telegram from Chairman Mao Tse Tung never reached the Quaid-i-Azam is also history because the radio-telegraph connection in those days was between Moscow-London-Delhi and the message of Chairman Mao Tse Tung was sent through the wire service to Moscow for onward transmission to Karachi and the Quaid-i-Azam. When I was in Beijing in 1965 many senior Chinese leaders talked to me of the message from Chairman Mao Tse Tung to Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah on August 14, 1947 via the radio-telegraph link from Moscow-London-Delhi-Karachi. It could be that this historic message from Chairman Mao Tse Tung to Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah lies buried in some secret archive of the British, who could not have relished a message from Chairman Mao Tse Tung to the Pakistani leader at a time when the future of Hong Kong was at stake. It is different that Hong Kong went back to the embrace of the fatherland in 1997 marking an end to British rule just as August 14, 1947 marked the end of British colonial rule in the Sub-continent and the emergence of Pakistan as the fifth largest Islamic state of the world.
As we reflect on that position of 1947, we find that we are no longer the largest Muslim state but definitely the only Muslim state having Nuclear deterrence, officially demonstrated. That to my mind is of some solace to us and also gives pride in the hearts of our brothers in Bangladesh, a member of the OIC that Pakistan is a nuclear state and is a Muslim moderate state. Again, as we look round we find that Afghanistan in having its own problems, Iran is hedged in on both sides by an avowed enemy, the USA, Iraq is having foreign troops, there is turmoil in Arab Palestine and in many states of Africa. In India there are different separatist movements at work. And Pakistan continues to host a very large number of persons from Bangladesh, Myanmar and several other countries including Sri Lanka who find Pakistan a good job market. Pakistan has five million expatriates who sending home over 3.5 billion dollars but the fact remains that Pakistan continues to be safer than many other countries in the region. And the measures aimed at good governance and transparency should give positive results, hopefully, soon. Given these promising possibilities there is every reason to hope for progress and prosperity in Pakistan in the days ahead and as an optimist I share this hope.




Freedom struggle in NWFP
A historical perspective

By Sharif Farooq


Pukhtuns are born as rebels. They never compromise with any kind of hegemony, supremacy, slavery or subjugation. North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and tribal areas have their special status amongst the comity of the nations. How unfortunate it was when Englishmen intruded in the territory of freedom-loving Pukhtuns. Britishers unleashed anti-Pukhtun propaganda, conducted their character assassination by dubbing them as barbarous, hostile, mischievous, ill-mannered and wily people. It was a deliberate, wilful campaign against Pukhtuns because cunning Britishers wanted to justify the rest of the world that whatever Britishers were doing to crush innocent, God-fearing, noble Pukhtuns, they were within their "divine right". In fact the hidden purpose behind this nefarious campaign was to gag the voice of Pukhtuns, so that when Britishers would advance towards Russia according to their forward policy via Afghanistan, a Muslim country, which had the religious, ethnic and historic ties with Pukhtuns, entire belt may not rise against them. At the same time they were following the policy of "divide and rule." They had used these tactics against Sikhs and other parts of the Sub-continent.
After sowing the seeds of friction they were successful to conquer Sikhs. They occupied the NWFP & tribal areas in 1849. When the province of NWFP emerged on the Sub-continent map in 1901, Britishers had to face the tribesmen and freedom fighters incessantly, foreign invaders had to face almost 60 skirmishes or battles.
The biggest war was fought at Ambeela in 1863 in which Mujahideen of Syed Ahmed Shaheed and Shah Ismail Shaheed fought courageously. After this crucial fight, second Afghan war was fought. In this war Amir Mohammed Yaqub Khan was badly defeated, the Amir renounced his sovereignty over Afghanistan, left for Dera Dun (India) to spend rest of his life in exile. The fate of his brother, Sardar Mohammed Yaqub, was also quite pathetic. He had to leave his country settling down in Lahore and Rawalpindi. But he could not get permanent abode, so he returned to Peshawar, where he died and buried. After the demise of Sardars, a shrewd ruler Amir Abdur Rehman who signed historic Durand Line agreement with Sir Mortimer Durand, occupied the throne of Afghanistan and proved a far-sighted ruler, ruthless administrator and wonderful buffer-state ruler between British empire and tsarist Russia. The Amir was succeeded by progressive, revolutionary and charismatic young monarch king Amanullah Khan popularly known as Ghazi Amanaullah Khan. Due to his revolutionary and progressive and over-ambitious objectives and treacherous character of his own lieutenants, he could not withstand the deep-rooted conspiracies and intrigues hatched against him by the Britishers. He was replaced by General Nadir Khan who had been brought from France.
It may be interesting to note that despite change of rulers in Afghanistan, the tribal people did not reconcile with the foreign rulers and in 1897, third Afghan war was practically fought between the Britishers and Afridis. This war was a final blow for mighty Britishers, in which Britons threw 1010 English officers, 10,882 English soldiers, 22,614 Indian soldiers, 19,934 auxiliaries, 42,880 camels, horses, mules, bullocks and donkeys were thrown in the battle field. All of them completely annihilated except Dr Cavignree perhaps Afridis wanted to convey the message to British government through this solitary figure. However, the last skirmish was ended in 1900 in Waziristan. After that Britain had to modify their tactics.
In spite of all the humiliation, Britons did not give up their imperialist designs. Whatever happened in Afghanistan and tribal areas, the people of NWFP wherever possible, reacted very courageously against the foreign rulers - Britishers, also knew if Syed Ahmed Shaheed and Shah Ismail Shaheed can along with their comrades can come to fight against Sikhs, their remnants spread over tribal areas may also organise power of resistance against them. Therefore, Lord Curzon bifurcated NWFP from Punjab to use NWFP as a jumping ground against all freedom fighters. The positive proof can be seen that the cunning British government gave special status to NWFP but did not give the rights and privilege, which were given to people of Punjab and the rest of the Indians provinces. On the contrary, Indian penal code and revenue system was imposed upon the people of NWFP.
The "Zulum" against the people of NWFP was perpetrated that the reforms which were to be introduced in Punjab after 1901 under the Minto Morley Scheme etc, Pukhtuns were completely ignored. On the contrary, Frontier Crime Regulations (FCR), murderous outrageous Act of 1877 was imposed. Through these rules the most heinous barbarous Act was given with the pious name of Ghazi Act. Why Ghazi Act? Because Britishers knew the names of Shah Ismail and Syed Ahmed Shaheed's bravery and rebut less struggle for restoration of a just rule, similarly from every nook and corner of NWFP and tribal areas freedom fighters fought against the foreign rulers under the banner of Ghazis, FCR and other rules were imposed.
"Hand picked Lackys Jirga System" was introduced by the District Magistrates and Political Agents. Under FCR any suspicious person can be arrested and sent to jail for 14 years. Even today, there is no right to appeal against the harsh punishment awarded under these rules. In addition to this, on the mere satisfaction of District Magistrate or Political Agent, heavy fines and burning of houses were allowed.
These most inhuman, treacherous detestable acts/rules and regulations were passed in the name of human safety, human dignity etc but in fact they were used against all the human values. When entire India, headed by valiant people of NWFP and tribal areas denounced, defied and rejected Rowllatt Act and also boycotted the Simon Commission, freedom fighters and freedom-loving leadership of NWFP and its followers were either sent to jails, murdered, hanged or their bodies were mutilated and burnt. It may not be out of context if I mention here that all those human crimes which were committed during British Raj presently can be witnessed by the world being repeated at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Gharaib prisons.
However, great leader M A Jinnah was struggling for the introduction of constitutional reforms in NWFP. His speeches in the Central Assembly of India are a witness to it. It can be safely claimed that it was Mr Jinnah's and his friends' relentless struggle that government of India had to yield to introduce these reforms which already being enjoyed by all the provinces of British India. It is interesting to note that apart from extremist Hindu religious organisations, so-called liberal, freedom-lovers, torchbearers of human rights, president of Sawaraj party, Pundit Moti Lala Nehru opposed the introduction of these reforms in NWFP. Not only extremist Hindu religious organisations and their so-called liberal leaders, but also Englishmen were opposing the introduction of reforms in NWFP. Mr Jinnah, very courageously but logically, refuted the wilful campaign against the reforms in NWFP.
Valiant sons of Frontier were always in the vanguard of every anti-British aggression against Muslims, therefore, they heroically participated in Khilafat Movement, Hijrat Movements. So much so that Pakhtons of this area participated in Quit India Movement under the leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a veteran leader of the Frontier province who started his political career with protest meetings against Rowlatt Act and also participated in Khilafat and Hijrat movements and founded his Khudai Khidmatgar or Red Shirts Movement in 1930. The initial objectives of the Khudai Khidmatgar party were to "Free Quran" and "Free Islam" and to provide houses to poor peasants of the area. He was against land-lordism and feudalism in the province. To spread education amongst the poorest of the poor, he opened Masjid and Maktabs "Azad Madrassah and Schools." Through these schools and madrassahs revolutionary teachings were spread. In the beginning carpenters, weavers, farmers flocked around his call, because of his selfless services. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was given the title of Badsha Khan or Bacha Khan and because of his anti-colonial background, free thinking, bold ideology and unambiguous he was sent to jail along with his thousand of volunteers. His life was very eventful, when he heard that British police, army and other forces had massacred the brave people of Peshawar on April 23, 1930 in historic Qissa Khawani Bazar, he marched from Charsadda to Peshawar - hundreds of his followers were with him. The British Forces intercepted the Khan and put him under custody. He was imprisoned and harsh punishment was awarded.
Bacha Khan was now in full limelight on the national horizon. Though Bacha Khan claimed that first of all he contacted Sir Feroze Khan Noon and the other Muslim Leaguers to help Pukhtuns to get them out from this turmoil but no Muslim Leaguer came to rescue Pukhtun. Congress leadership immediately grasps the opportunity and Mahatma Gandhi became virtual "God-Father" of Khudai Khidmatgars or Red Shirts. Later on, Bacha Khan joined Congress and became Gandhi ji's disciple. Funds, political guidance and social contacts with utmost courtesy and humility were showered upon "Khan Brothers" and their close circle. Muslim League during this period in NWFP was called as "Motor League" having no roots in the masses. When the Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah visited Peshawar in 1936, few dozen workers were there to receive Mr Jinnah at the Peshawar railway station. His first public meeting was a fiasco but the great leader did not loose his heart and he kept working for the rights of Pukhtun. Pukhtun intelligentsia, political and social workers, Ulema, everyone knew his invaluable service to introduce reforms in NWFP. He was the person who had demanded Pukhtuns rights and separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency. He was the man who fought not only for the rights of Pukhtuns but entire Muslim Ummah from Khyber to Palestine. He guided Muslims to open banks, insurance companies and got highest standard of education. His vast services, particularly, attracted young Pukhtuns. Just after ten years in 1946, MA Jinnah was enthusiastically received by the masses at Peshawar.
When the students of Islamia College, Peshawar, in a welcome address, showing their devotion declared that "We are offering you a purse of rupees of nine thousand for Pakistan this year, next year when you would come to Islamia College, we would present to your honour Nine Thousand heads of students for any sacrifice." On this occasion Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar and other dignitaries were present in the gathering.
The welcome address was read by late Arbab Mukhtar Ahmed Khan. When the young Arab after presenting the welcome address was occupying his seat, the Quaid smilingly said: "Young man! Please present this welcome address to your Quaid". This was extremely pleasant moment. The entire audience exploded in applause.
Why this change, when congress had won Provincial elections of 1937 and 1946? Because Congress Ministries could not prove according to the 90% Muslim population and poverty and ignorance remained the fate of the masses. Hindu capitalists, businessmen and bureaucrats or a few henchmen of Congress were flourishing. Congress government stopped the grant of Islamia College, religious teaching was banned. This resulted in complete somersault for Congress, therefore, Prime Minister Nehru's tour of the tribal areas was a complete disaster. Thousands of Peahawaris and tribesmen organised protest rallies against Nehru, Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Prime Minister Dr Khan Sahib were in worst quandary. After his arrival at Peshawar airport, everywhere in the tribal areas, Pundit Nehru was received with virtual physical attacks, anti-slogans & black flags. At certain places Nehru had a narrow escape. Not only Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in his "India wins Freedom" but also a letter addressed to Lord Wavell, the then viceroy of India by the then governor of NWFP, Sir Olaf Caeroe depicts the reasons of Congress government and its leadership's unpopularity.
Under the circumstances, June 3, 1947 Plan was announced by the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee in the House of Commons. In this Plan, Referendum in NWFP and districts of Assam was announced. The 3rd June Plan and its acceptance by Congress was a dreadful betrayal to Bacha Khan.
However, on June 23, 1947, NWFP Provincial Congress working committee under the chairmanship of Begum Nasim Wali Khan's father, Amir Mohammad Khan, a noble sole, held a meeting at Bannu demanding that referendum should not be held on the issue of Pakistan and India but it should be held on the issue of India, Pakistan and Pathanistan because the majority of the Pathans were against to join Pakistan.
However, the Congress under the great leadership of Gandhi, Nehru and Patel had already "Betrayed" the Red Shirts by accepting June 3, 1947 Plan, Congress leadership knew very well that Pukhtuns population was not ready - logically and politically - to remain in isolation by joining India. Their future was with Pakistan. However, to give a fair chance to Red Shirts demands to hold Referendum in a fair and free manner. Sir Olaf Caeroe was changed by the Governor, Sir Rob Lock Hart, Chief of Command of Indian Army and Brigadier J R Booth, Commander of the Wana Brigade became Referendum Commissioner. Neutral British Army was given the charge to hold Referendum. It was abundantly clear that winds of change were blowing in favour of Pakistan. Lord & Lady Mountbatten during their visit to Peshawar in which not only thousands of Pukhtun Burqa-clad ladies procession, clandestine from Pakistan Radio and lacs of Pukhtuns gathering in Shahi Bagh convinced Lord Mountbatten that inevitable change inevitable. In addition to this, there was dozens of other reasons in favour of holding Referendum but Bacha Khan boycotted the Referendum. However, 99% percent votes were polled in favour of Pakistan and only one percent was not in favour of Pakistan. The figures are as follows:

In favour of Pakistan 289,244
Against Pakistan 2,874

At the end I may mention here that the most interesting and historic event, in which revolutionaries of NWFP paved the way for organising Indian National Army, which was conceived by great Bengali Congress leader Netaji Subhshah Chandra Bose. These revolutionaries smuggled Subh Chandra Bose via tribal areas to Kabul. From Kabul the great freedom fighter with forged passport issued by the Italian embassy flew to Berlin via Moscow. While he was in Berlin, Japanese government welcomed Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and he organised the army of 70,000, who deserted the British Army during World War-II, which was spread from Burma to Japan.
The emergence of Indian National Army broke the back of British Empire. British confidence in Indian Army -- the strongest wing of British arrogance was shattered.
Credit goes to revolutionaries from the NWFP Abad Khan, Akbar Shah Mian, Mohammad Shah Mian and Bhaghat Ram.
Let us remember all the martyrs and freedom fighters on this Independence Day, who took part in Pakistan Movement & freedom struggle which culminated in the emergence of Pakistan on the world map on August 14, 1947.




Pakistan was inevitable
By Prof Dr M Yakub Mughul


The Muslims were a political power in India for more than one thousand years. Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 712 AD and since then Sindh became the Gateway to Islam in India. Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri was the first Muslim warrior who was responsible for the establishment of Muslim rule in India. After the defeat of Pirthvi Raj in the second battle of Tarain in 1192, Sultan Mohammad Ghauri appointed Qutbuddin Aibak as his Viceroy to consolidate his empire. The last Muslim dynasty, which ruled in India was the Mughul dynasty. In 1857, the Muslims lost the War of Independence and last Mughul Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was deposed and made prisoner, hence, the Muslims became subjects of British India. Thus, Hindus got new masters and the British needed for their support, against the Muslims, who favoured them in every walk of life. For about a century Indians remained under the British rule, who were not only deprived of their majority provinces in all respects but at the same time the Muslims were treated as second grade citizens. At the time of partition of India, Pakistan inherited only 34 Industrial units out of 921. This shows that when Pakistan was established, these areas were extremely backward economically and we had to work very hard to develop the country.
After a long struggle, under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-i-Azam, the Muslims got a separate homeland - Pakistan on August 14, 1947. This day has, therefore, a historical importance, the day on which the downtrodden Muslims of the South Asia got a place, where they could live freely and mould their lives accordance with the principles of Quran and Sunnah. On this day Pakistan emerged not only as the biggest Muslim state of the Islamic world but also as a fifth largest country on the world map. If Pakistan had not been created, the Muslims in India would have remained there as a nameless nation or a religious minority. Pakistan is a great gift of Allah, which came into being on 27th Ramzan-al-Mubarak, Yaum-al-Juma, so that the Muslims should bow before Allah for this great favour of a sovereign state.
The Quaid, on the occasion of Independence Day, in his message to the nation said: "It is with the feelings of the greatest happiness and emotion that I send you my greetings. August 14 is the birthday of the independent and sovereign state of Pakistan. It marks the fulfillment of the destiny of the Muslim nation which made great sacrifices in the past few years to have its homeland." He added: "Today is Jumma-tul-wida, last Friday of the Holy month of Ramazan, a day of rejoicing for all of us wherever we may be in this vast Sub-continent and for the matter of that throughout the world. Let the Muslim congregations in their thousands, in all the mosques, bow in all humility before the Allah Almighty and thank Him of His eternal kindness and generosity seeking His guidance and assistance in the task of making Pakistan to a great state and themselves into its worthy citizens".
"Finally, let me tell you, fellow citizens, Pakistan is a land of great potential resources. But to build it up into a country worthy of the Muslim nation we shall require every once of energy that we possess and I am confident that it will come from all whole-heartedly. Pakistan Zindabad".
The British had fixed June 1948 for granting independence to the sub-continent, but later, they hurriedly announced August 14, 1947 for the partition of India in order to cripple newly established country-Pakistan and to create problems for it so that it could not survive.
The Quaid-i-Azam at first devotedly worked for the cause of Hindu Muslim Unity and spent most of energies and efforts towards its attainment. His efforts were appreciated and he was acknowledged by the Hindu themselves as "Ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity." But the force of emerging conditions soon led the Muslims of the Sub-continent to change their outlook and adopt a different course.
The Congress, like the British, had always opposed the Muslims demand for separate homeland and preferred a unitary form of government. This was abundantly clear in the Nehru report as well as in the stand taken by the Indian National Congress at the Round Table Conference. In both cases, it was recommended that there should be a unitary form of government with maximum powers vested to the centre. The problem with the Congress leadership was that it always itself to express the "of the nation" without realising the force of Muslim opinion opposed to its policies and programmes.
The Muslims were not prepared to submit to a central government with the Hindu majority domination. They realised that they will remain "permanent minority" and could not hope for turning the majority rule in the opposite direction. The more they saw the powers vested in the centre, the more they feared it must necessarily, in practice, favour the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population.
Allama Iqbal considered Quaid-i-Azam as his mentor and used to write him letters on political issues. Iqbal wrote a letter to the Quaid on May 28, 1937 wherein he discussed the future of the Muslims in prevailing conditions in India. He said: "To my mind the new constitution with its idea of a single Indian Federation is completely hopeless. A separate federation of Muslim provinces reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of non-Muslims. Why should not the Muslim of north-west India and Bengal be considered as a nation entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are? Personally I think that the Muslims of north-west India and Bengal ought to ignore at present the Muslim minority provinces. This is the best course to adopt in the interests of both Muslim majority and minority provinces."
Attlee the Prime Minister of Great Britain announced on February 20, 1947 that transfer of power to responsible Indians not later than June 1948 would take place. It was simultaneously announced that Wavell was being recalled and replaced by the Viscount Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten arrived on March 22, 1947 and he was warmly welcomed by Nehru. Lord Ismay had warned his government that this appointment was both a collusive acts with Congress and insult to the Muslims.
After the decision of the British Government, Mountbatten was trying to become the common Governor-General of India and Pakistan. He desired that after partition he should be the Governor-General of both of the new states.
In mid-May Nehru invited Lord Mountbatten to continue as Governor-General of the new India and he immediately accepted the offer. In a meeting with the Quaid on July 2,1947 Lord Mountbatten put forward his proposal of a common Governor-General. However, Quaid-i-Azam did not agree with his proposal and informed Mountbatten that as all the Governors of the provinces after the establishment of Pakistan would still be British, as would be commanders of each of three armed services, the Governor-General must be a Pakistani to demonstrate that the country was really independent. Quaid-i-Azam also rejected his idea that Quaid-i-Azam should be Acting Governor-General. Being aware of the partiality of Mountbatten in favour of the Indian National Congress and his leadership, the Quaid did not want to take any risk.
There upon Mountbatten said: "Do you realise what this cost you?" Quaid-i-Azam replied, "I may cost several crores of rupees in the assets." Mountbatten replied, "It may well cost you the whole of yours assets and the future of Pakistan."
Due to the opposition of Attlee, the Prime Minister of UK, and Lord Mountbatten for the partition of India and the partiality to Congress leadership later, and threat to Mr Jinnah Pakistan was deprived of getting its due share and Kashmir's future was left unsettled so that Pakistan may not consolidate itself.
While addressing the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on August 11, the Quaid had declared that the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan was the only 'solution' of the problem of India. 'Any idea of a United India could never have worked and in my judgment, it would have led us to terrific disaster.'
The economic factor and the fear of Hindus domination also played a vital role in the struggle for separate homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent.
The Establishment of Pakistan brought the greatest responsibilities on the shoulders of Quaid-i-Azam, who was not only the first 'Governor-General of Pakistan but also at the same time the Father of Nation. Had to build the newly born State, starting from the scratch.'
At the time of independence there was no administrative machinery to assume the day-to-day official business. Actually Pakistan was born with a number of serious disadvantages. In 1947, it was not only, politically and administratively backward as compared to the rest of India but also economically the poorest part of the British India. Its economy was basically rural based.
The majority of its population lived in the countryside and three-fourth of its GNP was contributed by the agricultural sector. The new country did not have its own currency. Being basically agricultural, the areas that in 1947 were set apart to form the State of Pakistan did not possess the institutional infrastructure to support a modern economy. In view of these handicaps, it was not therefore surprising that few people regarded Pakistan as economically not viable. The Quaid-i-Azam rose as a great Muslim leader in India. He galvanised and united the scattered Indian Muslims on the basis of Muslim nationhood. He categorically announced that there were two nations in India, Muslims and Hindus. He gave Muslims a destination in the form of a separate Muslim State in the Lahore Resolution, adopted by Muslim League on March 23, 1940.
The Quaid worked for the development of the areas comprising of Pakistan. He pressurised the British Government to introduce reforms in these areas. On the other hand he made Muslim League active in every corner of India. Due to his efforts, Muslim League branch was established in Baluchistan in 1939 and people of that area not only became aware of Muslim League but also supported Pakistan demand. Similarly under his leadership, Muslim League had also won all the four bye-elections in 1946 in NWFP, which was under the influence of the Congress.
No doubt, it was Quaid's efforts and belief that made not only the British Government but also the Hindu dominated Congress agreed to the partition and establishment of two independent States in India, one for the Muslims and the other for Hindus. It was also due to the competent leadership of Mr Jinnah that Baluchistan, which was under the influence of princely States and Jagirdars, had given its verdict for Pakistan. NWFP too, which was under the Congress rule had voted for Pakistan. Hence, all Muslim majority areas i e, Bengal, Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, and NWFP voted for Pakistan and even Muslim minority areas also voted for Pakistan. This was a great success of Mr Jinnah. No doubt, the establishment of Pakistan is an outcome of the efforts of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. His own qualities, character, knowledge, calibre, courage, way of reasoning, decision making, strength, perseverance, sense of honour and integrity were proved his weapons to crown him with success.
The Quaid-i-Azam was an indefatigable political leader. It was due to his honesty and sincere approach that he was able to carve out the sovereign state of Pakistan, despite so many obstacles and impediments in his way.
The Quaid-i-Azam will be remembered in history as one of the few world leaders who combined in themselves many lofty traits such as statesmanship, courage, sense of responsibility, integrity, forwardness, and dedication for the cause. He was a great parliamentarian, his logic unassailable. He was unpurchaseable and had always the courage to say what he considered was in the interest of the Muslims of the Sub-continent. The problem of refugees and their rehabilitation was the most crucial, one, which faced Pakistan at the time of its creation. Over one million Muslims were killed ruthlessly. Nearly over twelve million Muslims had been forcibly driven from Indian territories into Pakistan. Mass killing of Muslims and mass exodus was maliciously designed to cripple the newly established Muslim State of Pakistan.
Quaid-i-Azam met this challenge with courage and determination. He moved his headquarter to Lahore to give his personal attention to the problems of refugees. Quaid-i-Azam Relief fund was created in which rich and wealthy citizens of Pakistan were asked to donate generously for the rehabilitation of the refugees.
Lord Mountbatten wanted to weaken Pakistan. He, therefore, influenced Radcliff to award Muslim majority Tahsils of Pathan Kot and Gurdaspur to India to provide land route to her to send its army to Kashmir.
One of the major problems, which the Government of Pakistan had to deal with, was that of finance. After partition the assets were to be distributed between the two countries as per agreed formula. But the Indian Government delayed the payment of Pakistan's share of assets with the intention to create as much disorder as possible and aggravate the economic crises in Pakistan. The finances of the country, however, were so carefully and efficiently managed by the Government of Pakistan under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam, so that in very first year Pakistan had a surplus budget - a performance, which was repeated in subsequent years.
At the time of independence there was a balance of Rs 4 billion in the Reserve Bank of India. Pakistan's share was Rs 1 billion but it was agreed to give 0.75 billion to Pakistan. The first installment of Rs. 200 million (Rs 20 crores) was paid to Pakistan. The payment of remaining amount was stopped on the advice of Sardar Patel. Gandhi kept fast till death and announced that he will not break his hunger strike till the release of amount to Pakistan. Thus, Indian Government was compelled to give another installment of Rs 500 million (Rs. 50 crores). However, remaining amount of Rs 50 million (Rs 5 crores) was never given to Pakistan.
The Quaid-i-Azam gave monetary independence to the newly created country by establishing the State Bank of Pakistan and completed the judicial structure of the administration by creating the Federal Court. B R Ambedkar called him the 'most incorruptible politician' of undivided India who gave the watchwords of Unity, Faith, and Discipline to the nation that he had founded.
On the external front, Pakistan kept good relations with all its neighbours, even with the countries that were hostile. It was because of the policy of the Quaid who believed in peace within and without and in the principle of "live and let live". The Quaid-i-Azam followed a policy of good will and friendliness towards Bharat (now India). He also offered to enter into arrangements for 'Joint Defence' with India.
While addressing to the gazette officers in Chittagong, on March 25, 1948, the Quaid warned them: "You are not rulers, you do not belong to the ruling clan, make the people feel that you are their servants and friends. Maintain the highest standards of integrity, justice and fair play. If you do that, people will have confidence and trust in you and look upon you as friends and well - wishers." The Quaid advised to the officers of Government House, Peshawar, on April 14, 1948 that "you should not be influenced by any political pressure, political party of individual politician".
Quaid-i-Azam did his best to make Pakistan self-sufficient and viable. He was totally against jobbery and nepotism. He rejected capitalist and communist systems for Pakistan and advised Muslims to adopt a system in Pakistan based on the principles of Islam. He had created an Independent Muslim State for the practice of Islamic principles. He also announced that minorities in Pakistan would remain secure and they would also enjoy their rights. As Islam itself protects the rights of minorities, there should be no misconception in this regard.
William Rushbrook a great historian writes about the achievements of the Quaid as under: "Probably no other Head of State, which had recently gained its independence, had been called upon to face the difficulties, which confronted Quaid-i-Azam. In West Pakistan, situation was bad enough, but at least he had some trained members of the All India Services on which to build the administration. Out of the initial confusion, when the Government in Karachi had to carry on records no precedents, no accommodation, and scarcely typewriter and with millions of homeless and penniless refugees from India to resettle. So long as Mr Jinnah lived, there was little real trouble, but after his death in 1948 the old difficulties emerged again."
-- (The writer is the Director of
Quaid-i-Azam Academy, Karachi.)




Economic roots of partition
By Dr Naureen Talha


An overwhelming majority of Pakistanis are thankful that we have a sovereign, independent country where we have risen to senior positions in every profession. Fifty-seven years of independence has given us plenty. From a very narrow base of industry, educational institutions, health, banking, insurance, infrastructure and trained manpower, we have developed an impressive network of each of the above in both public and private sectors. Though there are problems and issues concerned with various sectors in our economy, but such issues confront many countries, which need to be addressed.
The question, which plagues in certain minds both in India and Pakistan is the creation of Pakistan on August 14, 1947. Whether there was a need for its creation? To find an answer we have to look into economic factors in the making of Pakistan.
The sharp educational and economic status between Hindus and Muslims coincided with their religions and cultural differences in India. Irrespective of their geographical distribution, the Muslim community felt like an economically backward entity in India. There were no two views amongst them that something was needed to be done to end their backwardness. Muslims rarely did well. There were only a few Muslim businessmen and industrialists who had any concerns worth mentioning.
Muslims felt the dominance of the Hindus in the government services and the professions, as well as in business trade and commerce, which extended to the Muslim majority areas too. The desire and demand to have their rights in the political and economic sphere engendered permanent tension between the Hindus and the Muslims. Muslim educated classes competed for economic and political assurance. Identification of economic backwardness and hold of Hindus on the economic life of India nurtured the feelings of an economic nationalism among the Muslims. The Muslims saw no future for themselves in the face of an economically superior Hindu community, unless they looked after their own class interests. This developed into an effort to support Muslim business classes by Muslim consumers and encouragement of business trade and commercial pursuits among the Muslims. Such efforts had started since the early 1920's and continued and increased in intensity right until the partition of India in 1947.
This is shown by various Muslim League resolutions from May 1924 to December 1940 and Muslim League publications available at National archives of Pakistan during 1940-1947. There were numerous resolutions, which urged the Muslim leaders and associations to make every effort to induce Muslims to start businesses. They had to make a special effort to improve themselves in this respect. Similarly private societies and urban classes of townsmen and artisans were urged to come forward in the fields of industrial development by forming co-operatives and paying attention, especially to the handloom industry which employed a large of Muslim artisans. Muslim youth was encouraged to make efforts towards trade, arts and industries.
After 1940, a new life was infused among the Muslims. Jinnah set up an economic planning committee during the All India Muslim League Session in Karachi on 24-26 December 1943, to make a scientific study and survey to find out the natural and mineral wealth and the scope for various industries in the new country. This committee submitted its report in June 1945.
Jinnah was successful in developing vital economic institutions for the Muslims of India with the help of the Muslim industrialist classes. Memons, Khojas, Bohras and Muslim businessmen like the Isphanis, Habibs and Adamjees supported the League. In Bombay, Sindh, Madras and Bengal a very powerful section of the mercantile, professional and industrialist support formed the backbone of the Pakistan movement.
In setting up daily newspapers such as Star of India, Dawn, Pakistan Times and other dailies, M A H Ispahani, Ahmed Ispahani, Adamjee Haji Dawood and Rafi Butt supported the ventures financially. By October 1944, the Federation of the Muslim Chamber of Commerce and Industry at Delhi had grown into a robust and representative organisation of Muslim merchants and industrialists of India. Jinnah worked indefatigably to establish such a Federation. Muslim industrialists and businessmen as M A H Ispahani, Sir Adamjee Haji Dawood, Sir Sultan Chinoy, Habib Rahimtoola and Sikander Dehlvi supported the formation of the Federation.
The idea of a Muslim airline was given by the Jinnah in June 1946 with the help of Ahmed Ispahani and Sir Adamjee Haji Dawood - the Orient Airways was floated. Muslims all over India bought shares in the airline valued up to one crore. The airline symbolised the growing economic independence of the Muslims of India. Orient Airways was the first and the only Muslim airline operated in pre-partition India. Jinnah realised the vital importance of banking and insisted on the creation of another first class Muslim bank in the Sub-continent. He pointed out that they claimed to be a nation of hundred million strong and yet they just had one bank out of the scores, which operated in India. The Habib Bank was small in size as compared with other banks operated by Hindus and foreigners. The Muslims Commercial Bank was brought into existence by Sir Adamjee Haji Dawood and Mirza Ahmed Ispahani, on the eve of the partition in July 1947.
Jinnah was also instrumental in the floatation of the Muhammadi Steamship Company by the Habib brothers in Bombay. It gave an opportunity to create Muslim workers in yet another nation building effort, the realisation by the Muslim leadership and the Muslim professional and business classes of their economic backwardness in India generated interest in the economic development of the Muslim majority areas and lent mass support to the Pakistan cause, the readiness and enthusiasm displayed by different Muslim classes in supporting Pakistan were reflective of a desire to see Pakistan offer as many economic opportunities to the Muslims as India did to the Hindus, therefore the investments by Memons, Khojas, Bohras, Agha Khanis, Ispahanis, Habibs and Adamjees to Pakistan resulted in the emergence of Karachi as one of the Major industrial centers in South Asia.
We have come a long way, 14th August, our independence day should not only be an occasion for celebrating but for thoughtfulness of the financial contributions made by Muslim industrialists and businessmen under the guidance of Mohammed Ali Jinnah to give a sound economic foundation to Pakistan. The private sector led development strategy followed by Jinnah pre-partition and post-partition should continue to make Pakistan's economic future better.
--The author is Associate Professor,
Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad